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  Cheviri N. Ambarish and Kandikere R. Sridhara*

Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India


Received: 27 November 2013.   Accepted: 18 October 2014.  Published: 31 December 2014  




Giant pill-millipedes belonging to the genus Arthrosphaera undergo metamorphosis by moulting leading to periodic replacement of the exoskeleton. Such behaviour is occasionally seen in the natural habitat of Western Ghat forests and plantations. This study examined the moulting behaviour of giant pill-millipedes Arthrosphaera (order, Sphaerotheriida) for the first time. During maintenance of pill-millipedes in laboratory mesocoms, they exhibited active moulting cycles during summer months (February through May). The moulting events could be divided into five stages (burrowing, construction of moulting chamber, sedentarystate, ecdysis and regaining activity). Arthrosphaera distica, the smallest among the Arthrosphaera showed the highest percentage of moulting (51%) followed by large-size Arthrosphaera spp. (A. fumosa, 41%; A. magna, 21%; A. dalyi, 13%). Among the four species studied, the entire moulting process lasted between 4 and 5 days, from initiation (burrowing) to regainingthe original rigidness and activity. The moulted pill-millipedes exhibited different colours with less prominent striations leading to mistaken identity especially during early monsoon in the Western Ghats. Depending on the species, the original colour of pill-millipede will be regained within 3-9 weeks. Besides inducing moulting in mesocosms, our study is advantageous as it shows the role of specific hormones and proteins involved in moulting. As the Arthrosphaera spp. are known to produce quality manure in natural habitats as well as in mesocoms, understanding its physiology and moulting cycles helps when expanding its population commercially for organic agriculture.

Keywords: Arthrosphaera, giant pill-millipedes, mesocosm, moulting, Sphaerotheriida, Western Ghats

Geotags: Western Ghats [Ninthikallu, 12°39'N, 75°26' E | Shankaraghatta, 13°35'N, 75°48'E | Karike,12°45¢N, 75°38¢E | Adyanadka,12°41'N, 75°6'E]



Millipedes belong to the third largest class Diplopoda of the phylum Arthropoda encompassing over 80,000 species with systematic description of about 12,000 species (145 families in 16 orders) (Shelley, 2007; Sierwald and Bond, 2007).They are the major saproprophagous macrofauna of terrestrial ecosystems with wide distribution (temperate, subtropical and tropical zones) and involve in recycling of organic matter and improving soil fertility (Golovatch and Kime, 2009). They also serve as important biogeographical indicators due to their diversity, geological age of origin and low vagility (Hopkinand Read, 1992). Giant pill-millipedes of the order Sphaerotheriida have a patchy distribution in South Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand representing about 325 species (Wesener and van den Spiegel, 2009; Wesener et al., 2010). Among the families of Sphaerothiriida, the Arthrosphaeridae has a restricted distribution in Southern India, Sri Lanka and Madagascar (Wesener and van den Spiegel, 2009). A small literature search reveals that there are about 40 species of Arthrosphaera considered as endemic to the Southern India and Sri Lanka (Wesener et al., 2010). According to a recent phylogenetic study, the Arthrosphaeridae originated about 90 Mya in Gondwanan period prior to the separation of India from Madagascar (Krause, 2003; Wesener and van den Spiegel 2009; Wesener et al., 2010).

Millipedes possess hard external cover as seen in many invertebrates like crustaceans, spiders and centipedes (Ewer and Reynolds, 2002). Metamorphosis from larva to adult is governed by a moulting process (or ecdysis), which leads to replacement of a new cuticle by shedding of the old cuticle. Two hormones involved in the moulting process include ecdysteroid (e.g. 20-hydroxyecdysone or 20E) and a juvenile hormone (Ewer and Reynolds, 2002). The former initiates the moulting process, while the latter helps in determining the type of cuticle to be replaced. Periodic shedding of the exoskeleton (exuviae) is a common behaviour in all arthropods including the millipedes (Aguinaldo et al., 1997). During moulting, shedding of exuviae allows the body of the millipede to expand under controlled and protected conditions. For normal growth and to expand body size, it has to shed the existing cover leading to the growth and development of new shell underneath. The millipede which has shed the exuviae is called ‘callow’, because of its soft and smooth surface. The colour of callow drastically differs from those of adults and gradually attains rigidness as well as original colour. The hardness and colour in pill-millipedes serve two important purposes; primarily for escape from predators and secondly, for camouflage. The edaphic factors responsible for moulting of millipedes are temperature, photoperiod, humidity, quantity/quality of food and microbial/parasitoid infection (Jurenka, 2007). Differences in these parameters could alter the onset of moulting by stimulating the neuroendocrine system.

Several species of Arthrosphaera sampled from the forests and plantations of different geographic regions of the Western Ghats are are routinely maintained in our laboratory in mesocoms for studies investigating their feeding behaviour and also for the production of organic manure (Ashwini and Sridhar, 2005; Ambarish and Sridhar, 2013; Sridhar and Ambarish, 2013; Sridhar et al., 2013). During routine maintenance of several species of Arthrosphaera in the laboratory mesocosms, moulting occurred during the summer months. As there are no studies on the moulting behaviour of pill-millipedes belonging to the order Sphaerotheriida (Wesener and Sierwald, 2005), the present study documents the behaviour and sequence of moulting of four species of Arthrosphaera in laboratory mesocosms. The term ‘pill-millipede’ used in the following text represents the tropical giant pill-millipede of the genus Arthrosphaera.



Pill-millipedes: Four species of pill-millipedes were sampled during July-August 2012 from the forests (forest reserves and sacred groves) and organically managed plantations (coffee agroforests and Areca mixed forests) of different regions of the Western Ghats Arthrosphaera dalyi Pocock: Ninthikallu, 12°39'N, 75°26' E; A. disticta Pocock: Shankaraghatta, 13°35'N, 75°48'E; A. fumosa Pocock: Karike,12°45¢N, 75°38¢E; A. magna Attems: Adyanadka,12°41'N, 75°6'E). They were identified based on the systematic keys (Pocock, 1899; Attems, 1936) and morphological descriptions (Kadamannaya and Sridhar 2009; Kadamannaya et al., (2012).

Laboratory mesocosm: A mixture of air-dried leaf litter of monocot (Cocus nucifera) and dicots (Lagerstroemia microcarpa, Pongamia pinnata and Terminalia paniculata ) (1:1:1:1 w/w) were taken in trays, pre-wetted and allowed for partial degradation for up to four weeks in the laboratory. They were offered to the pill-millipedes in glass tanks (90 × 60 × 60 cm) containing a 25 cm soil bed. A total of 20 pill-millipedes were transferred into each glass tank separately in three replicates. Leaf litter was moistened periodically by sprinkling a constant amount of water. The mesocosms were exposed to a normal photoperiod (12 hr light and 12 hr dark) in the laboratory (temperature, 27±2°C). The decomposing mixed leaf litter was replenished periodically to meet the nutritional requirement of pill-millipedes. Mesocosms were examined from September 2012 (end of monsoon) to June 2013 (beginning of monsoon) to follow the moulting behaviour.


Figure 01. Schematic representation of moulting cycle: a. active pill-millipede; b. burrowing; c. construction of moulting chamber; d. volvated millipede in sedentary stage; e. ecdysis; f. moulted individual moving out of the moulting chamber



Moulting was initiated by the end of post-monsoon (January), continued up to summer (February-May) and until the onset of monsoon (June). Prior to the initiation of moulting, the weight of individuals increased, caused by high feeding activity and accumulation of excess water to develop pressure in the haemolymph to smoothen the exoskeleton. Based on the present observation, the moulting behaviour of an active pill-millipede (Figure 01a) can be classified into five stages: burrowing (Figure 01 b), construction of the moulting chamber (Figure 01 c), sedentary state (Figure 01 d), ecdysis (Figure 01 e) and regaining activity (Figure 01 f). Among the pill-millipedes studied, the smallest species A. disticta showed the highest percentage of moulting (51%) compared to the large-size species such as A. fumosa (41%), A. magna (21%) and A. dalyi (13%) (Figure 02). The duration required for initiation and termination of moulting in pill-millipedes was 4-5 days, but the moulted pill-millipede required more duration for regaining their original colour. For instance, A. disticta required a short duration (3-4 weeks), whereas other species required long duration (8-9 weeks) to regain the original colour.

Burrowing and moulting chamber: Usually, pill-millipedes feed on the shreds of leaf litter available on the upper strata of soil as long as the soil is moist. The mouthparts of pill-millipedes are suitable for burrowing in to the soil to make a protective shelter for moulting, almost similar to hibernation. They excavate the soil to make a tunnel and a moulting chamber will be constructed at the end of the tunnel (Figure 01d). In most instances, the construction of tunnels takes place at an angle of 50-60°. The depth of tunnel varies from 5-25 cm in the mesocosms and the diameter of moulting chamber usually fits to its partially-conglobated posture. The small pill-millipede A. disticta constructed narrow tunnels in shallow depth (about 5-10 cm), while large-size species burrowed deep (up to 15-25 cm). The maximum tunnel depth (faecal pellets + soil) attained in the mesocosms in our study was 25 cm and it is expected that the depth may increase in the natural habitats depending on the nature of soil and availability of moisture.

The moulting chamber is constructed by mixing faecal pellets, fragmented leaf litter and soil. Pill-millipedes preferred middle region of the mesocosm with moderate moisture for moulting chamber construction than the low-lying areas with more moisture. The inner wall of the chamber was smooth and highly polished (Figure 03a) unlike the hibernating chamber (quiescent state), probably due to continuous rubbing of the surface to eliminate exuviae.

Sedentary state and ecdysis: Prior to moulting, feeding activity of pill-millipedes will be the highest to meet the energy requirement and to accumulate sufficient amount of water for smoothing the exoskeleton. Once they enter the moulting chamber, its activity will be highly restricted and it will attain an almost sedentary state. During this stage, it prefers to be in conglobated posture (Figure 01d, Figure 03b-d). On initiation of moulting in mesocosms, their behaviour was observed by clearing the upper region (leaf litter, soil and faecal pellets). Sometimes, the moulting chambers were constructed at the edge of the mesocosm and the entire process of moulting was visible through the glass. On initiation of moulting, pill-millipedes attain partially conglobated posture (Figure 04 g, k). During ecdysis, exoskeleton shedding initiates from the head region and ends at pygidium or the anal shield. Moulting in all pill-millipedes studied was initiated with breakage of exoskeleton between collum and first pair of legs. The opened up collum with head portion (mouth parts, antennae, eyes and gnathochilarium) separates and projects upwards like a cap. The second breakage of exoskeleton initiates between the first pair of legs and extends towards the telopods. Subsequently, the pill-millipede attains fully conglobated posture and the exuviae shows partial attachment to the body. The exuviae stay, partially covering the back of pill-millipede for a few days, later it become brittle and breaks into pieces. At the end of ecdysis, either the whole exuviae or its pieces will be left in the moulting chamber as the tunnel exactly fits into its diameter (Figure 01 f). In A. dalyi and A. magna, the exuviae were rigid and stayed on the back (Figure 04 e, h), while in A. disticta and A. fumosa it quickly collapsed in to pieces (Figure 04 f, g).

Callow and regaining activity: After moulting, pill-millipedes become soft and light-coloured, with partially distinct bands on tergites called the ‘callow’ (Figure 04, e-l). At this stage, it grows and expands its size by using stored nutrients. During callow stage, pill-millipedes are easily accessible to predators (especially ants), thus they reside in the moulting chamber until the body sufficiently hardens (Figure 03b-d). At times, they come out soon after moulting, probably in search of a food source. The initial colour after ecdysisis was either bluish-green or sky-blue (A. disticta: Figure 04f, J; A. fumosa: Figure 04g, k), greenish tinge with light yellow bands (A. dalyi) (Figure 04e, i) and sky-blue with yellow tint (A. magna) (Figure 04h, i). After shedding the exuviae (within 2-3 days), the exoskeleton regains its strength and the normal colour will eventually be restored. Because of such colour variations in the late moulting stage, many pill-millipedes will be mistaken as new species or variants especially during the early monsoon season in the Western Ghats (Figure 04: compare adults a, b, c, d with respective post-callow stage m, n, o, p).

Percentage of moulting

Figure 02. Percentage of moulting in four species of pill-millipedes in mesocosms (n=3; mean ± SD).

Moulting pattern

Figure 03. Moulting chamber and moulting pattern in Arthrosphaera magna in mesocosms: a. nature of moulting chamber; b. millipede housed inside the moulting chamber; c. ecdysis inside the moulting chamber (crumpled exuviae); d. final stage of moulting with exuviae on conglobated millipede.

Moulting stages of pill-millipedes

Figure 04. Moulting stages of pill-millipedes: a, b, c, d. Arthrosphaera dalyi, A. disticta, A. fumosa and A. magna prior to moulting, respectively; e, f, g, h. early stages of moulting in respective species with major difference in the colour complex; i, j, k, l. moulted callow of respective species; m, n, o, p. conglobated stage of moulted individuals prior to leave the moulting chamber for normal activity. Note the colour difference between individuals before moulting (first column), during moulting (second and third columns) and after moulting (last column).


Moulting is common in arthropods and it is one of the essential requirements for growth, metamorphosis and population expansion (Ewer, 2005). Arthropods exhibit significant anatomical modifications to meet moulting requirements (Aguinaldo et al., 1997). During ecdysis, uptake of a large amount of water creates the turgid pressure on the exoskeleton for its rupturing (Kuballa and Elizur, 2007). Further, uptake of water facilitates expansion of a new exoskeleton leading to muscle regeneration. In our study, pill-millipedes ingested a large quantity of moist leaf litter to meet the demands of energy and water. Moulting strategies of pill-millipedes are interesting because of their low vagility and high-speed burrowing capacity (Ambarish and Sridhar, 2013). Most millipedes cope with the conditions of wet and dry soil regimes with physiological and behavioural strategies (e.g. active on the soil horizon or hibernation) (Dangerfield, 1998). Arthropods are also known to consume their own exuviae to restore minerals and energy (Ruppert et al., 2004). In one of the high altitude forests of the Western Ghats, an unidentified Arthrosphaera species ingested its own exuviae after moulting probably to replenish calcium and magnesium (Ashwini, 2003). None of the four pill-millipedes in the present study showed such behaviour in mesocosms.

It is known that moulting results in nearly 80% mortality in arthropods because of the callow stage or partial trapping in its own exuviae (Ruppert et al., 2004). Construction of moulting chambers by millipedes prevents easy accessibility for predators. In the soil strata of forests and plantations, sturdy moulting chambers are hidden and provide maximum protection for millipedes from their predators (e.g. ants, crow, wild boar and mongoose) (Eisner and David, 1967). The depth of moulting chambers in natural habitats may be deeper compared to mesocosms due to presence of predators. In many locations especially in Areca mixed plantations, the depth of the moulting tunnels varies depending on the species of pill-millipede (e.g. A. fumosa: 10-65 cm; A. magna: 30-60 cm). The depth of tunnels likely depends on the soil texture as well as the quantity of deposited organic matter.

Moulting is a complex phenomenon regulated by a series of hormonal changes and environmental cues (Loeb, 1993). Ecdysteroids are the moulting hormones responsible for ecdysis in arthropods (Spaziani et al., 1989).During moulting, cuticle proteins will be upregulated indicating that these proteins are essential for development and hardening of the exoskeleton (Wynn and Shafer, 2005). Cuticle proteins bind to the chitin so as to stimulate calcification (Kragh et al., 1997; Wynn and Shafer, 2005). The cryptocyanine transports many essential compounds like hormones, phenol and proteins to the hypodermis of arthropods during pre-moult stage (Terwilliger, 1999). Metallothionein is another important protein exists in haemolymph, which is necessary during pre-moulting and moulting stages (Syring et al., 2000). According to Ewer and Reynolds (2002), arthropods generally increase their neuropeptide (20E) concentration to initiate the moulting process by stimulating epidermis to divide, separate from the old cuticle and synthesize/secrete the new cuticle. There is a decrease in 20E concentration in arthropods leading to completion of moulting process. 20E is known to act on the nervous system to initiate moulting and also influences peripheral tissues to harden the newly synthesized cuticle. Such proteins and hormones are yet to be characterized in pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera as well as the other genera of Sphaerotheriida. However, development of dorso-ventral segmentation pattern in temperate pill-millipede belonging to the genus Glomeris have been investigated recently by Janssen et al. (2004).


This is the first report on moulting behaviour of pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera belong to the order Sphaerotheriida. Among the four pill-millipedes studied, the extent of moulting ranged between 13-51% during the summer season in the mesocosms. After moulting, the pill-millipedes exhibited different colours with less prominent striations leading to mistaken identity as new species or variants especially during early monsoon in the Western Ghats. In addition, to understand the physiological aspects of moulting, studies on the cascade of unclear events responsible for the regulation of ecdysis will be more rewarding. Molecular studies aiming at the hormonal regulation of moulting in pill-millipedes especially microarray techniques may develop a method for controlling the moulting cycle. Understanding such control mechanisms improves knowledge of the life cycles of pill-millipedes and will help in large-scale cultivation and production of organic manure under in situ and ex situ conditions.


The authors are grateful to Mangalore University for permission to carry out this study in the Department of Biosciences. CNA acknowledges the award of Inspire Fellowship by the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, Government of India (DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2011/294: Award # IF110540). KRS acknowledges the award of UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India. The authors are thankful to the editor and the anonymous reviewers for genuine suggestions to improve the earlier version of the manuscript.


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Ambarish C.N. and Sridhar K.R. (2014) Moulting behaviour of the giant pill-millipedes (Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaera) of the Western Ghats of India: An ex situ study Lepcey - The Journal of Tropical Asian Entomology 03: (1) 01 – 11