Current Issue
           
 

Short Communication

 
 

DIVERSITY OF FLOWER VISITING INSECTS OF CROPS IN BANGLADESH


 

Santosh Mazumdar*, Badrul Amin Bhuiya and Mostafa Kamal Pasha


Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh

*Email: santu_ctg@yahoo.com                                            
Received: 12 January 2014   Accepted: 11 June 2014   Published: 31 December 2014

 
 

Abstract

Bangladesh is a small country in South Asia with a wide range of flora and fauna within a 147,570 square kilometer area. The present endeavour is to provide a report on the diversity of flower visiting insects associated with some fruit, orchards, medicinal plants and agricultural crops of Bangladesh. A total of 103 flower visiting insects are listed belonging to 62 genera of 22 families under 3 orders, viz. Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera. Among hymenopteran visitors the genera Apis, Lasioglossum, Trigona and Xylocopa were found to be not only dominant in number but also had a rapid rate of movement towards flowers. The genera Musca, Chrysomya, Allograpta, Eristalis, Helophilus and Eumerus belonging to order Diptera and Parnara, Pelopidus, Delias, Eurema of the order Lepidoptera are ranked second and third most important groups respectively. The social bees were hardly seen to forage on flowers other than Apis cerana Fabricious, Trigona fuscobaltiata Cam., and Xylocopa irridipennis Lepel.

 

Keywords: Foraging insects, pollinators, diversity, crops, Bangladesh.

Geotags: Bangladesh, [Chittagong 22.644959, 92.146110 | Cox’s bazar 21.504716, 91.849479 | Silhet 24.897073, 91.863972 | Panchagarh 26.342228, 88.563967 | Narsingdi 23.928783, 90.764808]


INTRODUCTION


More than 30 genera of animals comprising of hundreds of species of floral visitors provide pollination services for over three-quarters of the staple crop plants that feed human kind and for 90% of all flowering plants around the world (Prescott-Allen and Prescott-Allen, 2005; Ingram et al., 2008). Animal pollination is a key ecosystem service because most plants rely, to some extent, on animal pollination for sexual reproduction and thus for seed and fruit production (Bawa, 1995). Hundreds of insect species are known to assist in pollination of different plants (Sung et al.,2006). It is estimated that about 80% of the commercial crops are pollinated by insects (Free, 1993). The main groups of these insects are the bees, wasps, butterflies, moths, flies, beetles and cockroaches (Mazumdar, et al., 2010). Information on pollinator insects are available from different authors (Tahir et al., 1985; Das and Gupta, 1989; Free, 1993; Villanueva-G, 1994; Roubik, 1995; O’Dell, 1997; Heard and Janu, 1999; Ahmad and Aslam, 2002; Williams, 2002; Rust et al.,2003; Anderson, 2003; Raju et al., 2006; Sung et al., 2006; El-Berry et al., 2009).

In Bangladesh, Bhuiya and Miah (1990); Tadauchi and Alam (1993); Hannan (2003, 2007); Mazumdaret al. (2010, 2011) contributed to the knowledge of flower visiting insects in agricultural crops. The value of pollinators has been recognized since the dawn of agriculture, but measures for their conservation and management in wild lands have been considered only recently (Raju, 2003). The present study aims to explore the diversity and present country status of flower visiting insects, built on existing documentation generated by different institutes and authors of Bangladesh along with the result of the present study. This presentation is the most updated inventory of the flower visiting insects of some fruit, medicinal plants and agricultural crops and their country status of Bangladesh.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The study was carried out from 2009 - 2012 in different cultivated fields of Bangladesh located at 31Districts out of a total of 64 (Fig. 1). Insects were collected during the maximum flowering period of common seasonal crop plants of the areas. Collections were also made during peak hours of flower visitation, mostly in the morning. Some insects were collected after sunset when white or whitish flowers bloomed white flowered crops at night. Sampling was conducted for about 2-3 hours after the dehiscence of flowers. Insect pollinators were collected by sweep net and some small insects were trapped in a vial directly around the visited flowers by hand. All samples were brought to the lab, examined and sorted under a dissecting binocular microscope and mounted on pins. The mounted specimens were dried and later imaged using a microscope (Oxlympus, Germany), digital outdoor camera (Cannon, Japan) and digital 3D imaging system (Entovision). All specimens were labeled and then identified to genus or species level by following the literature of Bhuiyaand Miah (1990); Larsen (2004); Chowdhury and Hossain (2011); Ahmed (2008a; 2008b; 2009) and compared with the reference specimens housed in the Insect Museum of the Department of Zoology at the University of Chittagong. Identified specimens were deposited in the museum as mentioned above. Unidentified specimens are also kept in the insect Museum for further research.

Map

Figure 01. Map of Bangladesh showing the survey area in different districts of Bangladesh.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


In this study a total of 103 species of insects visiting 44 fruit, orchards, medicinal plants and agricultural crops have been compiled and identified from around the country (Table 1 and Table 2). The identified flower visiting insects belong to 62 genera within 22 families and 3 orders.
The 72 species under Order Hymenoptera belong to 36 genera were under 14 families. Of these, Apidae is the largest family which includes 26 species. They act as pollinators of all plant species studied. The species under Apis, Trigona, Melipona, Xylocopa, Lasioglossum, Nomia, Megachile were found to have a more diverse choice of crop plants than others. Again, the Hymenoptera, especially apiformes were found more active and forage more frequently than the species of other two orders, viz. Diptera and Lepidoptera. Time bees spent on flowers was found to be longer than other groups. For instance, the species of Apis, Trigona, Xylocopa and Lasioglossum spent longer time visiting each flower than wasps. As observed, bees visited flowers for collecting pollen and nectar, whereas the purposes of wasps were mostly for predation. Hymenopteran species were mostly attracted to cucurbit and Papilionaceae plants. The choice of plants might be due to nectar than pollen reward (Mazumdar, et al. 2010). The abundant of species Apis, Lasioglossum and Trigona outnumbered all other pollinating insects. They are now widely acknowledged as an essential component of pollinating services for many commercial crops. Proper management of these pollinators in an agricultural setting, increases crop productivity and as a result increases its commercial value (Crestana and Kageyama, 1989; Allain et al. 1999; Barfod et al. 2003;  Chaudhary and Rakesh 2000).

Although a large number of species of diverse groups of insects are involved in pollination of crops, bees in general and honey bees in particular are important as pollinator insects (O’Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2007). Bees also play an important ecological role, by pollinating natural or wild vegetation. Non-apis pollinators are also greatly important as an ecosystem service for biodiversity conservation (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). Bhuiya and Miah (1990) published a preliminary report on 18 bees from Chittagong, Bangladesh which includes 4 apidid, 7 xylocopid, 4 megachillid, 2 anthophorid, and 1 halictid bees. Tadauchi and Alam (1993) who surveyed for wild bees and recorded 1 megachilid, 1andrenid, 2 anthophorid, 3 halictid bees from 33 mustard fields in Bangladesh. The prospects of beekeeping for increased production of honey from the Sundarban and hill forests were reported by Baksha (2002, 2004). He recorded three species of honey bees, Apis dorsata, A. cerana, A. florea available in the forests. But there is no such report of pollinating bees or other pollinating insects in Bangladesh, except Tadauchi and Alam (1993) who worked on pollinating wild bee fauna of mustard plants only. Their study also recorded true flies belonging to 17 species in 5 families as a visitor or pollinator on 11 different seasonal crops from different fields.

The next dominant orders are Diptera and Lepidoptera containing 18 and 13 species respectively. True dipteran flies belonging to 18 species under 6 families were recorded as visitor or pollinator on 11 different seasonal crops. Among the collected flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Mesembrius bengalensis Musca domestica, Posena siberita, Sarcophaga sp., Paragus serrates, Helophilus bengalensis, Eristalis sp. and Allograpta sp., were considered to be the dominant species due to their frequent appearance of flowers. All individuals of Syrphidae were found to be mainly pollen eaters while the individuals of the Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae consumed nectar. The true flies were mostly attracted to Mustards, Radish, Plum, Coriander, Cauliflower, Pamelo and Indian Olive tree. These findings agree with Free (1993), Kearns (2001) and Larson et al. (2001). Dipteran pollinators were highly plant specific, compared to Hymenoptera, and mostly attracted to mustard and thus Brassicaceae as a whole. Out of all the species Chrysomya megacephala, Mesembrius bengalensis, Musca domestica, Posena siberita, Sarcophaga, and Eristalis spp. were more abundant than other pollinating flies. They are now widely acknowledged as an essential component of modern pollination services for many commercial crops. With proper management of pollinators, these crops are more productive, which increases their commercial value (Mazumdar et al. 2011).

Lepidoptera flora visits were for collecting nectar. They also carry pollen from flower to flower aiding in pollination efforts. The skipper Matapa aria was collected from white coloured flowers of Bottle gourd. Most white coloured flower visiting insects were recorded after sun set and early in the morning and the majority consisted of different species of skippers. According to Chowdhury and Hossain (2011) the total number of butterfly species of Bangladesh will exceed 400, of which only about 275 have yet been recorded. As flower visiting insects belonging to order Lepidoptera, 13 species were confirmed in this present research. The present study reveals the host specificity of order Lepidoptera to foraging plants which supports Thompson and Pellmyr (1991).

All the identified plant species belongs to 36 genera under 21 families. The dominating species were under the families of Cucurbitaceae, Brassicaeae and Fabaceae which embraces 24 species. The rest twenty species are under Family Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Caricaceae, Convolvulaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Tiliaceae, Musaceae, Pedaliaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Solanaceae and Umbelliferae. All these species have floral nectarines, good pollen rewards and have colourful flowers to attract insects. Among the plants 18 species are cultivated as vegetables, 12 are important economic crops, 3 are of medicinal importance and 11 are fruits.

All the cultivated plants have floral nectarines with good pollen rewards and have colourful flowers to attract insects. These attracting rewards, which are available after the dehiscence of flowers and anthesis play a major role in plant reproduction. When the concentrations of the flowering plants were high the presence of flower visiting insects, particularly pollen and nectar collecting insects, were high as well. Plant-pollinator mutualism is a key interaction in a terrestrial ecosystem (Procter et al., 1996). In Bangladesh, the reports on plant-pollinator interaction have been done by few workers (Tadauchi and Alam, 1993; Hannan, 2007; Mezumdar et al.,2010, 2011). Habitat fragmentation is one of the most apparent forms of environmental degradation and is often considered to be one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity (Rathcke and Jules, 1993). Excessive exposure to pesticides and other chemicals can also eliminate nectar sources for pollinators, destroy larval host plants for moths and butterflies, and deplete nesting materials for bees (Ingram et al., 2008). Wild bee diversity in degraded forest land dropped from 70 to 37 species in just 14 years in Costa Rica. Their number declines have also been confirmed for butterflies, moths, flying foxes and a host of other pollinators of food crops (Buchmann and Nabhan, 1996). Bangladesh has biogeographically transitional zone of flora and fauna, because of its geographical settings and climatic characteristics. Both flora and fauna are threatened by the loss of habitat resulting from increasing human populations, and unwise bio-resource utilization. The unplanned rapid urbanization and industrialization are leading to waste and pollution problems that affect natural ecosystems (Bangladesh: state of the environment, 2001).

Several species show a decline in abundance, but some generalists seem to thrive well. Simultaneously with the decline in wild bee species, the number of honeybee colonies has gone down just after 1960 when different canals for irrigation in plain land and Kaptai Lake in greater hill tracts for hydraulic energy were established. Moreover human interference in ecosystem for want of biological resources as well as lack of understanding of pollinator’s true value accelerates the decline of pollinators. To assess the value of conserving both flowering and flower visiting animals, particularly insects, along with the associated benefits for humans, further research is necessary in Bangladesh.

 

Table 1. List of the plants and related information recorded during study period

 

No.

Family Name

Scientific name of plants (Common name in parenthesis)

Plant status

01

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica L. (Mango)

Fruit

02

Apiaceaee

Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander)

Crop

03

Arecaceae

Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) †

Fruit

04

Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Wild date palm)

Fruit

05

Asclepiadaceae

Calotropis gigantea (L.) Ait. F. (Swallow tree)

Medicinal plant

06

Asteraceae

Guizotia abyssinica Cass.(Ramtilla)

Medicinal plant

07

Helianthus annuus L.(Sunflower) †

Crop

08

Brassicaceae

Brassica campestris L. (Field mustard)

Crop

09

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (Indian mustard)

Crop

10

Brassica napus var. dichotoma Prain (Rapeseed)

Crop

11

Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. (Cauliflower)

Crop

12

Brassica rapa L.subsp. rapa (Turnip)

Crop

13

Raphanus sativus L. (Radish)

Vegetable

14

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L. (Papaya)

Fruit

15

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea aquatic Ferssk.(Swamp morning glory)

Medicinal plant

16

Cucurbitacae

Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. (Ash gourd)

Vegetable

17

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumara & Nakai (Water melon)

Fruit

18

Cucumis melo L. var. melo (Musk melon)

Fruit

19

Cucumis sativus L. (Cucumber)

Vegetable

20

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne (Sweet gourd)

Vegetable

21

Lagenaria siceraria (Monila) Standl. (Bottle gourd)

Vegetable

22

Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. (Ribbed gourd)

Vegetable

23

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roemer. (Sponge gourd)

Vegetable

24

Momordica charantia L. var. charantia  (Bitter gourd)

Vegetable

25

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd. (Balsam gourd)

Vegetable

26

Trichosanthes cucumerina L. (Snake gourd)

Vegetable

27

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Pointed gourd)

Vegetable

28

Fabaceae

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet subsp. purpureus (Bean)

Vegetable

29

Lathyrus sativus L.(Grass pea)

Crop

30

Pisum sativum  L. (Pea)

Crop

31

Vicia faba L. (Febaceae bean)

Vegetable

32

Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper (Blackgram)

Crop

33

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Yard-long bean)

Vegetable

34

Liliaceae

Allium cepa L. (Onion)

Vegetable

35

Malvaceae

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (Lady’s finger)

Vegetable

36

Musaceae

Musa paradisiaca L. (Banana)

Fruit

37

Myrtaceae

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Indian black berry)

Fruit

38

Pedaliaceae

Sesamum indicum L. (Sesame)

Crop

39

Rosaceae

Fragaria vesca L. (European Strawberry)

Fruit

40

Rutaceae

Citrus maxima (Burm. f.)Merr. (Shaddock)

Fruit

41

Sapindaceae

Litchi chinensis Sonn.(Litchi)

Fruit

42

Solanaceae

Solanum lycopersicum L. (Tomato)

Vegetable

43

Solanum melongena L. (Brinjal)

Vegetable

44

Tiliaceae

Corchorus capsularis L. (Jute)

Crop

†Newly added plant of the present work

 

 

Table 2. List of flower visiting insects recorded during study period

 

Family

Scientific name

Previous record from Bangladesh

Common name of plants visited by pollinators

Order  Hymenoptera    

 

 

Andrenidae

Andrena sp.

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.)

Anthophoridae
 

Melecta himalayana Bingham

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Pithitis sp.

Hannan, 2007

Ramtilla, Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi, Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree, Sesame

Pithitis binghami Cockerell

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.)

Tetralonia sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree, Sesame

Apidae

Amegilla sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree

Amegilla andrewsi Cockerell

Mazumdar et al.,2010

Sponge gourd, Balsam gourd, Radish, Field mustard, Indian mustard, Bean and Sweet gourd.

Amegilla fimbriata Smith

Mazumdar et al.,2010

Sponge gourd, Sweet gourd and Bitter gourd.

Apis cerana Fabricious

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Hannan, 2007; Mazumdar et al.,2010

Sunflower, Blackgram, Grass pea, Ramtilla, Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi, Swallow tree, Sweet gourd, Onion, Field mustard, Rapeseed, Indian mustard, Ribbed gourd and Radish.

Apis dorsata Fabricious

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Tadauchi and Alam, 1993; Hannan, 2007; Mazumdar et al., 2010

Blackgram, Grass pea, Ramtilla, Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi, Swallow tree, Sesame, Sponge gourd and Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Apis florea Fabricious

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Tadauchi and Alam, 1993; Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sunflower, Sponge gourd and Cucumber.

Ceratina sp.

Hannan, 2007

Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi,

Ceratina hieroglyphica Smith

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bean.

Ceratina viridissima Dalla Torre.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bean.

Ctenoplectra sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sponge gourd.

Trigona sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sponge gourd, Turnip, Field mustard, Indian mustard, Rapeseed, Cucumber, Radish, Bitter gourd and Banana.

Trigona fuscobaltiata Cam.

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Mazumdar et al.,2010

Sunflower, Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi, Sponge gourd, Field mustard,  Indian mustard, Rapeseed, Cucumber, Radish, Bottle gourd, Bitter gourd, Onion and Banana.

Nomada sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree

Nomada adusca Smith

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Mazumdar et al.,2010

Bean, Sponge gourd, Sweet gourd and Ash gourd

Nomada subpetiolata Smith

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Thyreus histrio Fabricious

Mazumdar et al.,2010

Sponge gourd.

Xylocopa sp.

Hannan, 2007

Blackgram, Grass pea, Ramtilla, Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi, Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree, Sesame.

Xylocopa aeustuens L.

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sponge gourd, Cucumber, Pea, Snake gourd, Ribbed gourd, Bean, and Tomato.

Xylocopa auripennis Lepel

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Sponge gourd, Cucumber, Pea, Snake gourd, Ribbed gourd, Bean, and Tomato.

Xylocopa fenestrata Fabricious

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Xylocopa tenuiscapa Westw.

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Xylocopa basalis Smith

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Xylocopa bryarum Fabricious

Hannan, 2007

Sesame

Xylocopa rufescens Smith

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Xylocopa dissimilis Lepel

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Xylocopa irridipennis Lepel

Hannan, 2007; Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sesame, Sponge gourd, Cucumber, Pea, Snake gourd, Ribbed gourd, Bean, and Tomato.

Chrysididae 

Chrysis sp.

Hannan, 2007

Sesame

Chrysis mendicalis Cameron

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bean and Sponge gourd.

Colletidae

Hylaeus mixta Smith

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bean and Yard-long bean.

Eumenidae

Delta conica Fabricious

Hannan, 2007

Sesame

Eumenes sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree

Helictidae

Homalictus sp.

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.)

Nomia sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree

Nomia elliotii Smith

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

Unknown

Sphecodes crassicornis Smith

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Sphecodes matheranensis Blüthgen

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Lasioglossum sp.

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993;Hannan, 2007

Ramtilla, Wild date palm, Mango, Banana, Litchi, Swallow tree.

Lasioglossum albescens Smith

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993 Mazumdar et al., 2010

Papaya, Sponge gourd, Cucumber, Sweet gourd, Mustard (Brassica spp.), Field mustard, Indian mustard, Rapeseed, Turnip, Ribbed gourd, Bottle gourd, Radish and Bitter gourd.

Lasioglossum massuricus Blüthgen

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Lasioglossum matheranensis Cameron

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Lasioglossum nasicensis Cockerell

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Lasioglossum propinquus Smith

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Nomia elliotii Smith

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Nomia iridescens Bingham

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sponge gourd, Cucumber, Jute, Sweet gourd, Field mustard, Indian Mustard, Ribbed gourd, Febaceae bean, and Bitter gourd.

Megchilidae

Euaspis carbonaria Smith

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bitter gourd, Papaya, Sponge gourd and Gourd.

Heriades parvula Bingham

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

-

Megachile sp.

Hannan, 2007

Blackgram, Grass pea, Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree.

Megachile disjuncta Bingham

Bhuiya and Miah,1990; Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bean, Sponge gourd, Jute, Onion and Ribbed gourd.

Megachile feceta Bingham

Bhuiya and Miah,1990

-

Megachile gathela humida Cockerell

Tadauchi and Alam, 1993

 Mustard (Brassica spp.).

Megachile umbripennis Smith

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd, Bean, Febaceae bean, Sponge gourd, Field mustard, Indian mustard, Radish and Ribbed gourd.

Nyssonidae

Stizus biclipeatus Christ

Hannan, 2007

Sesame

Philanthidae

Cerceris sp.

Hannan, 2007

Sesame

Cerceris pictiventris Dahlbom

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd, Bean and Ribbed gourd.

Philanthus sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree, Sesame

Scoliidae

Elis grossa Fabricious

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd and Ribbed gourd.

Elis iris Lepel

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd, Lady’s finger and Ribbed gourd.

Scolia sp.

Hannan, 2007

Sesame

Scolia opalina Smith

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sponge gourd, Brinjal and Yard-long bean.

Sphecidae

Chalybion sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree

Tachytes sp.

Hannan, 2007

Swamp morning glory, Swallow tree

Tenthredinidae

Pristiphora sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Field mustard, Indian mustard.

Tenthredo sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Cucumber.

Vespidae

Odynerus bipustulatus Saussure

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd.

Odynerus punctum Fabricious

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd and Bean.

Polistes sp.

Hannan, 2007

Indian black berry, Sesame

Polybia stigma Smith

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Sweet gourd and Bean.

Order Diptera

 

 

Calliphoridae

Calliphora sp.

Mazumdar et al.,2011

Coriander

Chrysomya megacephala Fabricious

Mazumdar et al., 2010;2011

Coriander, Wild date palm, Cauliflower and Field mustard, Indian mustard

Rhinia sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010; 2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard and Radish.

Culicidae

Anopheles sp. ♂

Mazumdar et al., 2010;2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard and Radish.

Muscidae

Musca domestica

Mazumdar et al., 2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard and Plum

Sarcophagidae

Sarcophaga sp.♂

Mazumdar et al.,2010; 2011

Coriander.

Syrphidae

Allobaccha sp.

Mazumdar et al.2010;2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard, Radish and Cauliflower.

Allograpta sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010; 2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard, Cauliflower and Radish.

Dideopsis aegrotus Fabricious

Mazumdar et al., 2010;2011

Field mustard.

Episyrphus sp.

Mazumdar et al,. 2010;2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard.

Eristalis sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010;2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard and Cauliflower

Eristalis  quinquelineactus  Fabricious  ♂

Mazumdar et al., 2010; 2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard, Rapeseed.

Eumerus  sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010; 2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard and European strawberry

Helophilus bengalensis Wiedemann

Mazumdar et al., 2010;2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard, Cucumber, Cauliflower and Musk melon

Mesembrius bengalensis Wiedemann

Mazumdar et al.,2011

Cucumber, Cauliflower, Water melon and Musk melon

Paragus serratus Fabricious

Mazumdar et al.,2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard, Rapeseed, Cauliflower and European strawberry

Sphaerephoria sp.

Mazumdar et al.,2011

Field mustard, Indian mustard and Coriander

Tachinidae

Posena siberita Fabricious

Mazumdar et al.,2011

Indian mustard and Coriander.

Order Lepidoptera

 

 

Hesperidae

Badamia exclamationis Fabricius

Present study

Snake gourd

Lambrix sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Bottle gourd

Lambrix salsala salsala Moore

Present study

Bottle gourd, Radish.

Matapa aria Moore

Present study

Bottle gourd

Oriens goloides Moore

Present study

Shaddock

Parnara guttatus mangala Moore

Present study

Mustard and Radish

Pelopidus sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Pointed gourd, Papaya and Bottle gourd.

Pelopidus conjuncta conjuncta Herrich-Schäffer

Present study

Papaya

Telicota sp.

Mazumdar et al.,2010

Shaddock

Telicota bambusae bambusae Moore

Present study

Shaddock

Pieridae

Delias sp.

Mazumdar et al., 2010

Radish.

Delias hyparete Doharty

Present study

Radish.

Eurema habace L.

Mazumdar et al., 2010; Chowdhury and Hossain, 2011

Radish and Bean.                              

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


The authors wish to thank Dr. Md. Ismail Miah, Professor and Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh due to his kind advice during the study.

 

REFERENCES


Ahmad M. and Aslam M. (2002) Pollinators visiting Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Seed crop. Journal of Research (Science), Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, 13(1): 31-35.

Ahmed Z. U. (Eds) (2008a) Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, 20: Arthropoda: Insecta II (Homoptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera). Asiatic society of Bangladesh, 205 pp.

Ahmed Z. U. (Eds) (2008b) Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, 21: Arthropoda: Insecta III (Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Lepidoptera-Siphonoptera). Asiatic society of Bangladesh, 460 pp.

Ahmed Z. U. (Eds) (2009) Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, 22: Arthropoda: Insecta IV (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera). Asiatic society of Bangladesh, 426 pp.

Allain L. K., Zavada M. S. and Matthews, D. G. (1999) The reproductive biology of Magnolia grandiflora. Rhodora, 101(906): 143-162.

Allen-Wardell G., Bernhardt P. and Bitner, R. (1998) The potential consequences of pollinator declines on the conservation of biodiversity and stability of food crop yields. Conservation Biology, 12: 8-17.

Anderson S. H. (2003) The relative importance of birds and insects as pollinators of the New Zealand flora. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 27 (2): 83-94.

Baksha M.W. (2002) The prospect of beekeeping of upland farming system in the CHT. in: Khan, N. A.; Alam, M.K. and Khisa, S. K. (Eds). Farming Practices and Sustainable Development in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. CHTDB, Govt. of  Bangladesh and VFF – IC, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, 221-228 pp.

Baksha M.W. (2004) Scope of managing honey bees for increasing production of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. In: Faizudding, F. and Islam, S. A. (Eds). Proceedings of the Training – Workshop on Dissemination of Research Findings of the Sundarbans Mangrobe Ecosystem of Bangladesh. Mangrove Silviculture Division, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Khulna, 126-130 pp.

Bangladesh: state of the environment. (2001) Biodiversity, 77-92 pp. www.rrcap.ait.asia/pub/soc/bangladesh_biodiversity [accessed 13August 2013].

Barfod A. S., Burholt T. and Borchsenius F. (2003) Contrasting pollination modes in three species of Licuala (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae). Telopea, 10(1): 207-223.,

Bawa K. S. (1995) Pollination, seed dispersal and diversification of angiosperms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10: 311-312.

Bhuiya B. A. and Miah M. I. (1990) A Preliminary report on the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Chittagong, with brief biological notes. Chittagong University Studies, Part II: Science, 14 (2): 61-71.

Buchmann S. L. and Nabhan G. P. (1996) The Forgotten Pollinators, Island Press, Washington, D. C., 312 pp.

Chaudhary O. P. and Rakesh K. (2000) Studies on honeybee foraging and pollination in Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 9(1): 37-42.

Chowdhury S. H. and Hossain M. (2011) Butterflies of Bangladesh. Panir Printers, 9 Nilkhet, Dhaka, 211 pp.

Crestana C. d. S. M. and Kageyama P. Y. (1989) Pollination biology of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinoideae). Revista Instituto Florestal, 1(1): 201-214.

Das B. P. and Gupta V. K. (1989) The social wasps of India and the adjacent countries. Oriental Insect Monograph, 11:1-292.

El-Berry A. A., Moustafa M. A., Abdel-Gawaad A. A. and El-Bialey S. (2009) Pollinators other than honey bees visiting certain vegetable plants in Egypt. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie,77 (1): 106-110.

Free J. B. (1993) Insect Pollination of Crops (Reprint.), Academic Press, London, UK, 669-676 pp.

Hannan M. A. (2003) Poragayon Pratibeshbiddya (in Bangla). Bangla Academy, Dhaka, 1-8 pp.

Hannan M. A. (2007) List of flower-visiting insects collected in Baghiar-beel, Madaripur,

Bangladesh on some flowering plants. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, (Basic and Applied Sciences), 8 (2): 1-10.

Heard T. and Janu A. (1999) The Role of stingless bees in crop pollination. Annual Review of Entomology, 44: 183-206.

Ingram M., Nabhan G. and Buchmann S. (2008) Our Forgotten Pollinators: Protecting the Birds and Bees. 1-12 pp. http://www.pmac.net/birdbee.htm (accessed on 11August 2013)

Kearns C. A. (2001). North American Dipteran Pollinators: Assessing their value and conservation status. Conservation Ecology, 5 (1): 5.

Larsen, T. B. (2004) Butterflies of Bangladesh – an annotated checklist. IUCN, Bangladesh, 158pp+ 8 colour plates.

Larson B. M. H., Kevan P. G. and Inouya D. W. (2001) Flies and flowers: I. The taxonomic diversity of Anthophiles and pollinators. Canadian Entomologist, 133 (4): 439-465.

Mazumdar S., Bhuiya B. A. and Pasha M. K. (2010) A checklist of foraging and pollinating insects visiting seasonal crops of Bangladesh. Journal of Taxonomy and Biodiversity Research, 4: 35-40.

Mazumdar S., Bhuiya B. A. and Pasha M. K. (2011) Pollinating True flies (Insecta: Diptera) and their foraging behavior of seasonal crops of Bangladesh. Journal of Taxonomy and Biodiversity Research, 5: 7-10.

Michener, C. D. (2007) The Bees of the World (Revised edition). Johns Hopikns University Press, Baltimore, 877pp.

O'Dell, C. (1997) Grow your own disease-resistant pollinators. American Fruit Grower. Feb., 24-26 pp.

O'Toole, C. and Raw, A. (1991) Bees of the World. Facts on File, New York, 192 pp.

Prescott-Allen R. and Prescott-Allen C. (2005) How Many Plants Feed the World? Conservation Biology, 4 (4): 365-374.

Procter M., Yeo P. and Lack A. (1996) The Natural History of Pollination. Harper Collins Publishers, Hampshire, 479 pp.

Raju A.J.S. (2003) The status of pollinators and biodiversity in Asia: an overview. Journal of Palynology, 35-36: 53-71.

Raju A. J. S., Rao S.P. and Jonathan K. H. (2006) Andromonoecy, insect pollination and fruiting behaviour in Acacia caesia (L.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) in the Eastern Ghats. Current Science, 91(7): 939-940.
Rathcke B. J. and Jules E. S. (1993) Habitat fragmentation and plant- pollinator interactions. Current Science, 65 (3): 273-277.

Roubik D. W. (1995)  Pollination of Cultivated Plants in the Tropics. FAO Agriculture Services Bulletin. 118. X+196+II.

Rust R. W., Vaissiere B. E. and Westrich P. (2003) Pollinator biodiversity and floral resource use in Ecballium elaterium (Cucurbitaceae), a Mediterranean endemic. Apidologie, 34: 29-42.

Sung I-H., Lin M-Y., Chang C-H., Cheng A-S., Chen W-S. and Ho K-K. (2006) Pollinators and their behaviors on Mango Flowers in Southern Taiwan. Formosan Entomologica, 26: 161-170.

Tadauchi O. and Alam M. Z. (1993) Survey of pollinating wild bee fauna on mustard fields in Bangladesh. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture Kyushu University, 16: 91-106. `

Tahir I., Farooq S. and Bhat M. R. (1985) Insect pollinators and pests associated with cultivated Buckwheat in Kasmir (India). Fagopyrum, 5: 3-5.

Thompson J. N. and Pellmyr O. (1991) Evolution of oviposition behavior  and host preference in Lepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology, 36: 65-8.

Villanueva-G. R. (1994) Nectar sources of European and Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Journal of Apicultural Research, 33(1): 44-58.

Williams I. H. (2002) Insect Pollination and Crop Production: A European Perspective. In: Kevan P and Imperatriz Fonseca V.L. (Eds) - Pollinating Bees – The Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature. Ministry of Environment, Brasilia, 59-65 pp.


 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 
 

Site this article as:

Mazumdar S, Bhuiya B.A., and Pasha M.K., (2014) Diversity of flower visiting insects of crops in Bangladesh. Lepcey- The Journal of Tropical Asian Entomology, 03 (1): 34–42.