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HOST RANGE, PEST STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF WOOD DESTROYING TERMITES OF INDIA


Rashmi R. Shanbhag* and R. Sundararaj


Institute of Wood Science and Technology, 18th cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore – 560003, India

E-mail: Rashmishanbhags@gmail.com

Received: 10 October 2011 Accepted: 26 June 2013 Published: 31 October 2013

 
 

Abstract

Termites are the major constituents of the forest ecosystem in the tropical and subtropical areas, are well known for their capacity to damage and destroy wood and wood products of all kinds. An adequate knowledge of pest status and the range of material which termite attack and geographical preference of the termite is essential for appropriate pest control. For this purpose, a review of literature was carried out to understand wood destroying termites of India, their host range, pest status and distribution.

Keywords: Termites, pest status and distribution, Termopsidae, Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Stylotermitidae, Termitidae

Geotags: India, Kerala, Orissa, Assam, West Bengal [9.18887,76.549301 | 23.5237,87.532196 | 20.13847,84.060516 | 26.155438,92.805634]

 
   
   
 

INTRODUCTION

Wood feeding termites feed on wood and woody litter, including dead branches still attached to trees, and they may live in their feeding galleries which in some cases become colony centres (Eggleton et al., 1997; Wardell, 1987). As a pest, they are capable of causing serious economic damage (Cowie et al., 1989) especially in the tropical and sub-tropical regions (Pearce, 1997). Worldwide annually approximately 1.92 billion U.S. dollars are spent to eradicate termite infestation (Edwards and Mill, 1986). Su and Schefferhn (1990) estimated the damage due to subterranean termites in U.S. at around $ 1 billion. In Australia, it is estimated that 20% of Australian homes are infested by termites and the cost for management and damage repairs for termites is greater than 100 million (Australian $) each year (Scholz et al., 2010). Where as in China, up to 90% of Chinese homes south of the Yangtze River are affected by termite damage (GEI, 2005; MRP, 2010) and the economic losses from termites exceed $ 1 billion (US) each year. Ten thousand tons of pesticides have been applied in the 13 provinces of southern China for the termite infestation suppression. Japan may be the third largest user of pesticides for structural pest control in the world and the economic losses associated with termite damage is around 800 million (US$) a year (Verma et al., 2009). In Malaysia and India, 8-10 million (US$) and 35.12 million are spent towards termite treatment every year (Verma et al., 2009). An adequate knowledge of pest status and the range of material which termite attack and geographical preference of the termite is essential for appropriate pest control. For this purpose, a review of literature was carried out to understand the host range, pest status and distribution of wood destroying termites of India.

 

 
   
 

Figure 01. Indian map showing state provinences and the agro ecozones

 
   
 

 

 
   
 

DISCUSSION

One of the primary objectives of National Forest Policy, the enhancement of forest productivity by raising large-scale plantations under various forestation programs, is facing alarming pest problems due to the attack root-feeding termites (Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2011) which results in seeds in the seedbeds failing to germinate seedlings, cuttings etc. In case of transplants, they attack roots of these transplants at the age of 1-4 years. A survey was conducted during 2002 and 2003 in Ranchi, Jharkhand and in West Bengal showed considerable mortality of Gamhar (Gmelina arborea) saplings and the main cause was ring-barked taproots of dead saplings had been attacked by termites. Infestation of saplings, which occurred during the summer, started just below or on the surface of the ground and the damage resulted in ring barking of young saplings. Termites that penetrated and excavated the roots and stems, thus inhibiting the translocation of minerals and water (Chattopadhyay, 2005), also damaged saplings. In Central Arid Zone, Jodhapur leguminous trees; Prosopis cineraria, P. juliflora, Acacia senegal, Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis and Albizia lebbeck also showed termites as a major pest at the nursery stage (Parihar and Yadav, 2002). In the case of the Eucalyptus tree, mainly grown for reforestation program,a termite attack can sometimes lead to total loss of seedlings in nurseries (Thakur and Sen-Sarma, 1980). Reports says from different parts of India 80 to 100 per cent Eucalypt seedlings are lost in newly established plantations due to termite attacks if protective measures are not adopted (Roonwal, 1978, Nair and Varma, 1981; Thakur, 1990; Patel and Sahu, 1995).
Termites do not only attack saplings, as young and mature trees also face threat from these minute soft bodied insects. Investigation done on incidence of termites in young Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh showed 16% of the trees infested by termites. Seven Eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus hybrid [E. tereticornis], E. grandis, E. resinifera, E. camaldulensis, E. brassiana and E. FRI-4 and FRI-5) that were 6-8 yearsold screenedfor termites (Odontotermes spp.) in Maharashtra, India were highly susceptible (Meshram and Soni, 2011). Large-scale mortality of Acacia niloticaand Dalbergiasissooin Punjab, and the adjoining states, is due to termites attack (Sharma et al., 2005). Damage by subterranean termite belonging to the family Termitidae in coffee stands (Coffeaarabica and C. canephora) with shade trees studied in Karnataka by Gowda et al. (1995) reports termite species Odontotermesobesus, O. redemanni, O. horni, Macrotermesestherae and Nasutitermesindicola were damaging coffee plants and 13 species of shade trees. Odontotermes spp. were the dominant species, feeding on the bark and living tissues of the plants and attackswere the most severe in exotic shade trees, Grevillea robusta and Erythrina lithosperma.
Besides damaging living trees, termites can cause irreparable damage to timber laying open and used in the construction of properties by eating wood foundations, structural supports and many other crucial parts of buildings. The timber damage in buildings has been observed in all parts of India. Out of 300 species of termites known so far from India, about 35-40 species have been reported to damage timber in buildings (Sen-Sarma et al., 1975). Roonwal (1955) cited that an entire township of Shri Hargovindapur in Gurdaspur (Punjab) in India was gradually ruined by termite, Heterotermes indicola and eventually resembled a bombed-out ghost town. In the entire township 1900 houses were infested by particular termite species and nearly 400 collapsed. Extent of financial loss due to termite damage to buildings in India has not been computed precisely due to the difficulties associated with such computations but as per Rawat (2004), the cost of treatments as preventive and remedial measures comes to about Rs 28 million annually.
In addition to destroying wood in buildings, termites also damage valuable books, manuscripts and paintings. Inorganic materials such as electrical and telephone cables are reportedly eaten by termites (Henderson and Dunaway, 1999). High reproductive potential and resulting colony size of termites often contribute to their destructive ability (Su and Scheffrahann, 1998). Roonwal and Chhotani (1967) reported 58 species of termites as important wood destroyers. Sen-Sarma et al. (1975) in surveying all of India collected 64 species of wood destroying termites, 11 of those beingmajor wood-destroying termites. Roonwal (1979) listed 72 species of wood destroying termites from South East Asia. An overall perusal review revealed that until today, 92 species of wood destroying termites were reported from India (Table 1).
Of the total 337 species of termites known from Indian region, about 92 species are wood destroying termites representing 22 genera under 5 families viz. Termopsidae Holmgren, Kalotermitidae Froggatt, Rhinotermitidae Froggatt, Stylotermitidae Holmgren and Holmgren and Termitidae Westwood. Family Termitidae is the largest among all the wood destroying termite families constituting 41% of all wood destroying termite species followed by Kalotermitidae (33%), Rhinotermitidae (18%), Stylotermitidae (7 %) and Termopsidae by only 1 percent of total wood destroying termite species (Figure 2). The generic composition of all the wood destroying termite species is given in figure 3. It clearly indicates that the genus Odontotermes is the largest genus of wood destroying termites (19.57 %) consisting 18 species of wood destroying termite species out of all 92 species followed by genus Neotermes (15.22 %) and Microcerotermes (8.7 %) in a second and third position respectively.

Figure 2 Number of species in each family

Figure 02. Distribution of wood destroying termites under different families

Figure 3. Relative species composition of wood destroying termites under different genera

Figure 03. Relative species composition of wood destroying termites under different genera


Table 1. List of wood destroying termites of India

Sl.

No.

Species

Distribution

Host

Pest status

Reference

 

Family: Termopsidae Holmgren

Genus: Archotermopsis Desneux

  •  

A.wroughotoni Desneux

Himalayas

Rotten wood, dead log of Cedrusdeodara and Pinuswallichiana

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

 

Family: Kalotermitidae Froggatt

Genus: Postelectotermes Krishna

  •  

P. bhimi Roonwal & Maiti

Kerala

Tea plantations

 

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

P. nayari Roonwal&Verma

Kerala

Pterocarpus marsupiumand unidentified tree

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

 

Genus: Neotermes Holmgren

  •  

N. assmuthi Holmgren

Karnataka

Ficus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Mangifera indica

Minor

Harris, 1961; Sen-Sarma et al. 1975; Roonwal, 1979; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

N. bosei Snyder

Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Ficus sp., Aceroblongum, Pterospermum acerifolium, Toona ciliata, Artocarpus lakoocha,Artocarpus heterophyllus, Mangifera indica

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

N. buxensis Roonwal & Sen-Sarma

West Bengal

Macaranga denticulata

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

N. dhirendrarai Bose

Tamil Nadu

Mangifera indica

Minor

Bose, 1984

  •  

N. elenorae Bose

Karnataka

Mangifera indica

Minor

Bose, 1984

  •  

N. fletcheri Holmgren & Holmgren

Tamil Nadu

Artocarpus heterophyllus, Mangifera indica and Moringa oleifera

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Roonwal, 1979; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

N. greeni Desneux

Tamil Nadu

Delonix regia, Moringa pterygosperma

Minor

Chhotani, 1980

  •  

N. kalimpongensis Maiti

West Bengal

Ficus sp.

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

N. keralai Roonwal & Verma

Kerala

Unidentified wood

Minor

Bose, 1984

  •  

N. mangiferae Roonwal & Sen Sarma

West Bengal

Dead branches of Mangifera indica and Morus alba

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

N. megaoculatus lakhimpuri Roonwal & Sen-Sarma

Assam

Artocarpus heterophyllus

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

N. microculatus Roonwal & Sen-Sarma

Uttar Pradesh

Dead wood of Salix alba

Minor

Roonwal and Sen Sarma, 1960; Sen Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

N. paratensis Sen-Sarma & Thakur

Tripura

Standing branches of Morus alba

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

N. shimogensis Thakur

Karnataka

Dead branches of Mangifera indica

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

 

 

Genus: Glyptotermes Froggatt

  •  

G. almorensis Gardner

Uttar Pradesh

Mangifera indica, Celtis australis, Rhododendron arboretum and Shorea robusta

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

G. coorgensis Holmgren & Holmgren

Karnataka

Ficusre ligiosa,

Grevillea robusta

Minor

Roonwal and Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Roonwal, 1979; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

G. tripurensis Thakur

Tripura

Dead branches of Artocarpus chaplasha

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

G. ukhiaensis Akthar

West Bengal

Syzigium sp.

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

 

Genus: Incisitermes Krishna

  •  

I.didwanaensis Roonwal & Verma

Rajasthan

Unknown wood

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

 

 

 

Genus: Bifiditermes Krishna

  •  

B. beesoni Gardner

Haryana, Uttar Pradesh

Zizyphus jujuba, Z. mauritiana and Mangifera indica

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

B. pintoni Kemner

Orissa

Unknown wood

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

 

 

Genus: Procryptotermes Holmgren

  •  

P. dhari Roonwal and Chhotani

Tamil Nadu

Dead portions of Albizia chinensis, Cassia siamea, Ficus palmata and Peltophorum pterocarpum

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984

  •  

P. hunsurensis Thakur

Karnataka

Albizia chinensis, Cassia siamea and Ficus palmata

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

P. valeriae Bose

Tamil Nadu

Ficus sp.

Minor

Bose, 1984

 

 

Genus: Cryptotermes Banks

  •  

C. bengalensis Snyder

Assam, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tripura, West Bengal

Adina cordifolia, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Carapamo luccensis, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus palmata, Mangifera indica, Shorea robustaand wood works in buildings

Major

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

C. domesticus Haviland

Kerala

Wood works in buildings

Major

Harris, 1961; Roonwal, 1979; Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

C. dudeleyi Banks

Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Orissa, West Bengal

Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Erythrina indica, Herticra minor, Gmelina arborea, Carapa moluccensis and Heritiera minor

Major

Harris, 1961; Roonwal, 1979; Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

  •  

C. roonwali Chhotani

Kerala

Vateria indica

Major

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Roonwal, 1979; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

 

Family: Rhinotermitidae Froggatt

 

Genus: Coptotermes Wasmann

  •  

C. beckeri Mathur & Chhotani

Tamil Nadu

Wood works in buildings

Major

Bose, 1984

  •  

C. ceylonicus Holmgren

Andhra Pradesh,

Kerala,

Tamil Nadu

Acacia sp., Albizia chinensis, Alerites sp., Camellia sinensis, Citrus piradisi,Cocos nucifera, Gliricidia sepium, Madhuca longifolia, Tamarindus indica, Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

Major

Harris, 1961; Roonwal, 1979; Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

  •  

C. gestroi Wasmann

Assam

Stump of unidentified wood

Major

Bose, 1999

  •  

C. heimi Wasmann

Andhra Pradesh,

Karnataka, Kerala

Acacia leucophloea, Butea monosperma, Buchanania latifolia, Dipterocarpus indicus, Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Mangifera indica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Santalum album, Shorea robusta, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia crenulata, Mangifera indica, Tamarindus indica, Ficus sp. and wooden

material

Major

Harris, 1961; Harris and Nisse, 1971; Roonwal, 1979; Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989; Rathore and Bhattacharya, 2004; Premalatha et. al., 2010

 

  •  

C. kishori Roonwal & Chhotani

Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripper, West Bengal

Azadirachta indica, Bombax ceiba and Mangifera indica

Major

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

C. travians Haviland

Assam, Orissa, West Bengal

Wooden stumps, wood works in buildings

Major

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

 

Genus: Heterotermes Foggatt

  •  

H. balawanti Mathur & Chhotani

Orissa, Karnataka

Wood works in buildings

Major

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

H. indicola Wasmann

Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh

Abies pindrow, Alnus nitida, Artocarpus lakoocha, Bombax ceiba, Carapa sp. Dalbergia sissoo, Flacourtia ramontchi, Lyonia ovalifolia, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus leucotrichophora, Terminalia alata, wooden stumps, wood works in buildings

Major

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

  •  

H. malabaricus Snyder

Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala

Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Manihot glaziovii, Swietenia marcophylla, Shorea robusta, Anacardium occidentale,Bamboo poles and stumps of Casuarina.

Major

Harris, 1961; Roonwal, 1979; Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

 

Genus:Reticulitermes Holmgren

  •  

R. assamensis Gardner

Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal

Unidentified dead wood, Pinus longifolia

Minor

Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989; Maiti, 1983

 

  •  

R. saraswati Roonwal & Chhotani

Meghalaya

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

 

 

Genus:Parrhinotermes Holmgren

  •  

P khasiikhasii Roonwa l& Sen-Sarma

Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

 

 

Genus:Schedorhonotermes Silvestri

  •  

S. elenorae Roonwal & Bose

Andaman and Nicobar islands

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

S. longirostris Brauer

Andaman and Nicobar islands

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

S. medioobscurus Holmgren

Andaman and Nicobar islands

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

S. tiwarii Roonwal & Thakur

Andaman and Nicobar islands

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

 

 

 

 

Genus: Prorhinotermes Silvestri

  •  

P. flavus Bungion & Popoff

Karnataka

Ficus benghalensis

Minor

Bose, 1984

 

Family : Stylotermitidae Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Genus: Stylotermes Holmgren and Holmgren

  •  

S. beesoni Thakur

Tripura

Ficus sp.

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

S. bengalensis Mathur & Chhotani

Uttar Pradesh, Sub Himalayas, West Bengal

Alnus nitida, Morus laevigata and Quercus sp.

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

S. chakratensis Mathur & Thapa

Sub Himalayas

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

S. dunensis Thakur

Uttar Pradesh

Acer oblongum

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

S. faveous Chatterjee & Thakur

Himachal Pradesh

Alnus nitida

Minor

 

  •  

S. fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren

Karnataka,

Tamil Nadu

Alnus nitida, Morus alba, M. laevigata, Quercus leucotrichophora, Rhododendron arboreum and dead portions of Mangifera indica

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Roonwal, 1979; Bose, 1984; Roonwal and Chhotani, 1989

 

Family: Termitidae Westwood

 

Genus: Synhamitermes Holmgren

  •  

S. quadriceps Wasmann

Assam, Daman, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura,  West Bengal

Madhuca longifoliaand Pterocarpus marsupium

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975

 

 

Genus: Microcerotermes Silvestri

  •  

M. annandalei Silvestri

Rajasthan

Unknown

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

M. beesoni Snyder

Assam, Delhi, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Roots of Lyonia ovalifolia, Roots of Unknown

tree species

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

  •  

M. cameroni Snyder

Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala,   Tamil Nadu

Eucalyptus, Cassia fistula, Acacia catechu, Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis and Pterocarpus marsupium

Minor

Roonwal, 1979; Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984;

Chhotani, 1997

 

  •  

M. crassus Snyder

Tripura

Dry stems of Dalbergia sp., Shorea robusta and green culms of bamboo

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

M. flecheri Holmgren & Holmgren

Karnataka

Cocos nucifera, Vateria indica and bamboo wooden poles

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

M. heimi Wasmann

Karnataka, Maharashtra

Dried roots of bamboo

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

M. labioangulatus Sen-Sarma & Thakur

Andhra Pradesh, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh

Eucalyptus sp.

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

M. minor Holmgren

Karnataka

Eucalyptus citriodora

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

 

Genus:Macrotermes Holmgren

  •  

M. khajuriai Roonwal & Chhotani

Assam, Tripura

Rotten stumps of unknown species

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

 

 

Genus: Odontotermes Holmgren

  •  

O. anamallensis Holmgren & Holmgren

Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

Wooden beams in buildings

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

O. assmuthi Holmgren

Karnataka,

Kerala

Ficus benghalensis, Vateria indica

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

O. bellahunisensis Holmgren & Holmgren

Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus sp., and Tectona grandis

Minor

Roonwal, 1979; Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

O. bhagwatii Chatterjee & Thakur

Karnataka

Abies pindrow and Pinus roxburghii

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

O. bruneus Hagen

Karnataka

Pterocarpus marsupium, Santalum album, Tectona grandis and Dalbergia sissoo.

Minor

Harris, 1961, Sen Sarma et al.,1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997 ; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

  •  

O. ceylonicus Wasmann

Karnataka, Kerala,   Tamil Nadu

Ficus sp.

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

O. distanus Holmgren & Holmgren

Tamil Nadu

Mangifera indica, Shorea robusta, Engelhardtia spicata, Pinus roxburghii, Shorea robusta, Syzygium nudiflora,

Schima wallichii, Carica papaya and wooden pole

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975 ; Sachin kumar and Thakur, 2010

  •  

O. feae Wasmann

Kerala

 

Crop orchards and forest trees such as Butea monosperma, Dalbergia latifolia, Dipterocarpus indicus, Garuga pinnata, Gmelina arborea, Madhuca longifolia,Pterocarpus marsupium, Syzygium cumini, Tectona grandis, Terminalia crenulata and Eucalyptus sp

Major

Harris, 1961; Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

 

  •  

O. giriensis Roonwal & Chhotani

Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Orissa Tripura, Uttar Pradesh

Celtis australis and Dalbergia sissoo

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

  •  

O. gurdaspurensis Holmgren & Holmgren

Jammu and Kashmir

Pinusroxburghii, Pinuswallichianaand Eucalyptus sp.

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

  •  

O. horai Roonwal & Chhotani

Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh,  West Bengal

Dalbergia sissoo a nd Shorea robusta

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

O. horni Wasmann

Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

Eucalyptus sp. and Hevea brasiliensis

Major

Harris, 1961; Sen Sarma et al.,1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

O. kapuri Roonwal & Chhotani

Meghalaya, Tripura, West Bengal

Wood logs of unknown species

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

O. microdentatus Roonwal & Sen-Sarma

Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh

Shorea robusta, Terminalia alata, Pterocarpus marsupium, Pinus roxburghii and Eucalyptus sp.

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

  •  

O. obesus Rambur

South India

Abies pindrow, Bamboo sp. Cassia fistula Calophyllum sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Garuga pinnata, Pinus wallichianaand Shorea robusta

Major

Harris, 1961; Sen Sarma et al.,1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997 ; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

 

  •  

O. parvidens Holmgren & Holmgren

Northern estern India

Eucalyptus citriodora and E. tereticornis

Minor

Roonwal, 1979

  •  

O. redemanni Wasmann

Andhra Pradesh,

Karnataka

Acacia sp., Shorea robusta, Mangifera indica, Artocarpus hirsutus, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Terminalia coriacea, Ficus religiosa

Major

Harris, 1961; Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997 ; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

 

  •  

O. wallonensis Wasmann

 Karnataka

Boswellia serrata Eucalyptus sp., Pterocarpus marsupium, Pterocarpus santalinus, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia latifolia, Syzygium cumini and Tectonagrandis

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

 

 

Genus: Hypotermes Holmgren

  •  

H. obscuricep Wasmann

Southern and north eastern India

Rotten stumps of Gmelina arborea, Barkof Tectona grandis, Albizia sp.

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

 

Genus: Microtermes Wasmann

  •  

M. incertoides Holmgren

Andhra Pradesh,

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

Butea monosperma, Ficus benghalensis, Madhuca longifolia, M. latifolia, Emblica officinalis, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis, Terminalia bellirica and T. alata

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Chhotani, 1997

 

  •  

M. mycophagus Desneux

Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab

Dalbergia sissoo, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Morus alba, Platanus orientalis and Inside lying wood

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

  •  

M. obesi Holmgren

Karnataka,

Tamil Nadu, Kerala

Gliricidia sp., Bombax ceiba, Nyctanthes arboritis, Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Tamarindus indica, Tectona grandis, Anthocephalus chinensis, Dalbergia sisso, Gmelina arborea and Shorea robusta

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997; Sachin Kumar and Thakur, 2010

 

 

Genus: Nasutitermes Dudely

  •  

N. anamallensis Snyder

Karnataka

Albizia sp.

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

N. brunneus Snyder

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala

Pterocarpus marsupium, Vateria indica and Tectona grandis

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

N. crassicornsis Holmgren & Holmgren

Karnataka

Unidentified wood log

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

N. fletcheri Holmgren & Holmgren

Tamil Nadu

Fallen log of Alstonia scholaris

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

N. indicola Holmgren & Holmgren

Karnataka

Stump of Vateria indica

Minor

Sen Sarma et al., 1975; Bose, 1984; Chhotani, 1997

  •  

N. jalpaigurensis Prasad & Sen Sarma

West Bengal, Tripura

Vitex peduncularis

Minor

Sen-Sarma et al., 1975

 

 
   
   
 

REFERENCES

     
 

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Shanbhag R.R. and Sundararaj R., (2013) Host range, pest status and distribution of wood destroying termites of India Lepcey - The Journal of Tropical Asian Entomology 02 (1): 12 – 27