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Scientific Note




Shaaban Abd-Rabou 
Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Received: 30 September 2011 Accepted: 02 February 2012 Published: 08 June 2012


Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky, 1859) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is one of the most efficient parasitoid of soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of world and Egypt (Hart, 1972; Abd-Rabou, 2006). It is recorded associated with a wide range of host insects and plants (Xu and Chen, 2000; Noyes, 2010). Abd-Rabou (2001a) recorded this parasitoid species associated with Ceroplastes  floridensis Comstock from Egypt. Hendaway (1999) recorded Pulvinaria psidii Maskell adults parasitized by M. nietneri.Morsi (1999) recorded Ceroplastes rusci (L.) as a host of this parasitoid in Egypt. World data base of M. nietneri reported by Noyes (2011). 


Figure 01

Figure 1. Distribution of the parasitoid, Microterys nietneri in different localities in Egypt.

In this research, the samples of host insects and plants were collected from different locations in Egypt throughout the period of study 2005 and 2010. Leaves, leaflets, stems and fruits from different hosts were stored in well-ventilated glass tubes for one to two weeks emergence the adult parasitoid and for identification.

Results showed that M. nietneri recorded associated with 15 species of soft scale insects distributed in 13 governorates (Figure 1), which nine of them are new hosts in Egypt and the world. Additionally it is also associated with three parasitoid species which two of them are new to Egypt, and host-parasitoid relationship of another is new for the world. As well as it is recorded with eight plant associates, four of them new to Egypt and world (Table I).

Table I. Host insects, host plants and distribution of the effective parasitoid, Microterys nietneri in Egypt

Host insect Host plant Location Reference
  I. Hemiptera Coccidae
1. Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comstock** Psidium guajava Qalyubiya Present work
2. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock Citrus sp.   Gharbiya Abd-Rabou, 2001a
3. Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) Psidium guajava Beni-Suif Morsi, 1999
4. Coccus capparidis (Green) ** Capparis sp. *** Cairo Present work
5. Coccus hesperidum L. ** Mangifera indica Ismailia Present work
6. Coccus  longulus (Douglas) ** Mangifera indica Sharqyia   Present work
7. Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret) ** Gardenia sp. *** Giza Present work
8. Kilifa acuminata  (Signoret) ** Mangifera indica Qalyubiya Present work
9. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) ** Olea europaea Fayoum Present work
10. Pulvinaria floccifera  (Westwood) Psidium guajava Gharbiya Abd-Rabou and Badary, 2004
11. Pulvinaria mesembryanthemi (Vallot) **  Mesembryanthemum sp. ***  Helwan Present work
12. Pulvinaria psidii (Maskell) Psidium guajava Kafr El-Shikh Hendaway, 1999
13. Pulvinaria tenuvalvata (Newstead) ** Saccharum officinarum*** Daqahliya Present work
14. Saissetia coffeae (Walker) Olea europaea Northern Coast Abd-Rabou, 1999
15. Saissetia oleae (Oliver) Olea europaea El-Arish Abd-Rabou, 2001b
  II. Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae
Marietta leopardina (Motschulsky) ** Citrus sp. Gharbiya Present work
  III. Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae
Cheiloneurus claviger (Thomson)** Citrus sp. Gharbiya Present work
  IV. Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae
Pachyneuron concolor(Förster) *
Mangifera indica Ismailia Present work

*     new to Egypt
**   new to Egypt and world
*** new host plants




Abd-Rabou S. (1999) Parasitoids attacking the Mediterranean black scale, Saissetia oleae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. Entomologica Bari, 33: 169-172.

Abd-Rabou S. (2001a) Parasitoids attacking citrus wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. First Conference of Safe Alternatives of Pesticides for Pest Management, Assiut university, pp. 227-233.

Abd-Rabou S. (2001b) A survey of parasitoids associated with the hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in North-west Coastal area of Egypt. Bulletin Faculty Agriculture Cairo, Universty Special Edition, pp. 1-5.

Abd-Rabou S. (2003) Host range and distribution of Marietta leopardina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a hyperparasitoid of hemipterous and hymenopterous species in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 81(2): 555-562.

Abd-Rabou S. and Badary H. (2004) Survey and abundance of natural enemies of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 42 (2): 831-838.

Abd-Rabou S., Hanafi A. and Hussein N. (1999). Notes on the parasitoids of the soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. Entomologica Bari, 33: 179-184.
Hart, W. G. (1972). Compensatory releases of Microterys flavus as a biological control agent against brown soft scale. Environmental Entomology, 1(4): 414-419.

Hendawy A. S. (1999) Studies on certain natural enemies of scale insects attacking guava trees at Kafr El-Sheikh governorate. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, 145 pp. 

Morsi G. A. (1999) Studies on the natural enemies of scale insects infesting some fruit trees. Ph. D. Thesis, Benha Branch, Zagazig University,  235 pp.

Noyes J. S. (2010) Encyrtidae of Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), 3. Subfamily Encyrtinae: Encyrtini, Echthroplexiellini, Discodini, Oobiini and Ixodiphagini, parasitoids associated with bugs (Hemiptera), insect eggs (Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera) and ticks (Acari). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 84 pp.

Noyes J. S. (2011) Universal Chalcidoidea Database. The Natural History Museum. [Last accessed 19 May 2012]

 Xu Z. H. and Chen H. L. (2000) Six new species of the genus Microterys of China (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Entomologia Sinica, 7(2): 97-106.

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Abd-Rabou, S. (2012) New records of host insects and distribution of the effective parasitoid, Microterys nietneri Motschulsky (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Egypt. LEPCEY - The Journal of Tropical Asian Entomology 01: 29-31